Methods to Save Net Accessibility from Itself – A Record Aside

As is now fairly broadly identified amongst indie builders and just about
unknown in all places else, web sites are correctly created in accordance
with revealed accessibility requirements. The chief supply for these
requirements is the set of “suggestions” by the World Huge Net
Consortium’s Net Accessibility Initiative (the W3C WAI). These Net Content material Accessibility Tips (WCAG 1.0)
have been final formally up to date in 1999.

Article Continues Beneath

A brand new revision of the rules, WCAG 2.0, is being written. The
improvement course of goes slowly and is at risk of
recapitulating most of the errors of WCAG 1.0 — unrealistic
tips divorced from real-world internet improvement which can be without delay
too obscure and too particular.

However you, the indie developer, will help forestall this tragedy by
investing a small time frame in a single of some restricted areas that
might curiosity you. As an alternative of engaged on your complete WCAG, we want you
to deal with subjects through which you’ll have experience or expertise. By
collaborating on this restricted approach, you’ll be able to assist save internet
accessibility from itself.

Enlightened self-interest#section2

If you happen to select to make standards-compliant web sites, inevitably you
should comply with the rules. It’s foreseeable that you simply
may very well be legally required to comply with WCAG 2.0. You may decide into
following the rules or they may very well be foisted upon you.

You thus have an enlightened self-interest in making certain the brand new
tips truly make sense. Furthermore, we merely want extra

The participation downside#section3

I’ve been posting to the W3C’s accessibility-related
mailing lists since 1999 and I nonetheless
haven’t discovered how the WAI works. You don’t have to,

You simply have to know that the 2 principal mailing lists for WAI discussions are:

WAI Curiosity Group. Basic dialogue of internet
WAI Tips, dwelling of the Net
Content material Accessibility Tips Working Group. Dialogue of
present and future tips.

Not surprisingly, extra individuals are eager about WAI-IG’s
common chitchat than WAI-GL’s topic-specific discussions. From
June 2002 to June 2003, 290 totally different folks posted to WAI-IG, however
fewer than half as many (114) posted to WAI-GL.

That appears like loads,  nevertheless it isn’t. Net improvement now
ranges broadly, with many overlapping fields of experience. WCAG 2.0
will impinge on a lot of these fields, together with web page construction (XHTML
and related markup languages), CSS, multimedia, usability,
data structure, writing, and myriad disability-specific
points. I do know for a indisputable fact that main consultants in a number of internet subjects
unrelated to incapacity, whose names can be instantly acknowledged
by au courant indie builders, merely don’t
put up to both mailing listing. We have now no proof that precise consultants
in lots of pertinent fields are a part of the event course of for WCAG

And it reveals. The present drafts of WCAG 2.0 are a marked and
indeniable enchancment over the antediluvian WCAG 1.0, however they
nonetheless have far too little bearing on the true world of the net.

That is the place you are available in.

At press time, the present draft of WCAG 2.0 was 14,000 phrases lengthy
with out markup. I don’t see how anyone may sort out one thing
that large in a single sitting. It’s like an anaconda making an attempt to
swallow a Vary Rover.

What I’ve accomplished, then, is to interrupt up the WCAG draft into
“motion objects,” because the enterprise varieties say. The themes I
have chosen are:

  1. Rewrite: The rule
    wants rewriting and clarification
  2. Examples: The rule
    requires many extra examples, ideally drawn from precise web sites
    (anonymized if mandatory)
  3. Unclear on the
    : There’s one thing unsuitable with the essential
    concept of the rule
  4. Unimaginable: The rule, as written, is
    unimaginable to satisfy or just about so
  5. Not our
    : The situation can’t moderately be solved
    by tips governing internet content material

Earlier than everybody begins accusing me of being “too
crucial,” which is like accusing the sky of being too blue,
perceive that this text is a deficiency report on WCAG
2.0. We are able to’t afford to fake to be extra optimistic, upbeat,
and complimentary than is justified by the precise tips. We have now
solely a brief window of alternative to repair what’s unsuitable, and we
can’t try this with out figuring out what’s unsuitable. This
is not any time to intensify the optimistic.

The method right here is just like engineering documentation, the place
succeeding drafts produce deficiency experiences, every of whose objects is
both corrected, dominated to not be a deficiency, or just lived with
till the following draft. The method recurs till collaborators have
corrected or determined to stay with each error.

(I’ve individually written two briefing paperwork for a earlier
face-to-face WCAG assembly that listing deficiencies and suggestions, if anybody is .)

The place to seek out the originals#section6

WCAG 2.0 is a shifting goal.

The paperwork don’t use sufficient fragment identifiers. You
can’t hyperlink on to sufficient sections and paragraphs. The place
there’s a hyperlink, I’ll give it, however a variety of the time
you’re going to be caught utilizing the Discover command in your
browser. Furthermore, in subsequent drafts, wording is assured to


These tips want rewriting and clarification. However the issue is
a lot worse than that: The entirety of WCAG 2.0 is a
poorly-written morass. The doc violates its personal draft tips
on clear and easy writing. It’s an outright mess, and pressing
plain-English rewrites are required. The Net Accessibility
Initiative, which has a funds, ought to rent skilled
plain-English consultants for this process. It’s time to finish the
W3C’s custom of incomprehensible paperwork.

Nonetheless, for the needs of this part, we’ll deal with
sections that make subsequent to no sense as written.

  1. Overview of Design Rules: Right here, the 4 themes or
    “targets” of WCAG 2.0 are considerably clumsily named as



    • Perceivable
    • Operable
    • Comprehensible
    • Sturdy
  2. Make content material perceivable by any person. The checkpoint wants fixing. May you implement it
    as written?

    All non-text content material that may be expressed in phrases has a textual content
    equal of the operate or data that the non-text content material
    was meant to convey.

    1. Non-text content material that can be expressed in
      phrases has a textual content equal explicitly related to it.

    2. Non-text content material that can’t be expressed
      in phrases has a descriptive label offered as its textual content equal.

    3. The textual content equal ought to fulfill the
      identical operate because the creator meant for the non-text content material (i.e.,
      it presents all the meant data and/or achieves the identical
      operate of the non-text content material).

  3. What is “non-text content material”?

    Non-text content material consists of however just isn’t
    restricted to pictures, textual content in raster photographs, picture map areas,
    animations (e.g., animated GIFs), ASCII artwork, photographs used as listing
    bullets, spacers, graphical buttons, sounds (performed with or with out
    person interplay), stand-alone audio information, audio tracks of video,
    and video….

  4. WAI’s warning in opposition to using illustrations: If this
    guideline even deserves to be included, it requires rewording.

    Designers have to be cautious in deciding when to make use of
    illustrations. Studying an image might be a realized exercise that
    is simpler for some than others. Some customers skip the photographs; others
    learn solely the photographs. Designers should additionally acknowledge that visible
    conventions usually are not common and that people develop their very own
    psychological schema and expectations in deciphering visible data.

  5. Retransmitted captioning and audio description: Are you able to perceive
    this guideline?

    If content material is rebroadcast from one other medium or
    useful resource that complies to broadcast necessities for accessibility
    (impartial of those tips), the rebroadcast satisfies the
    checkpoint if it complies with the opposite tips.

  6. Definitions must be definitive. These

    content material

    Content material is the data or
    that means and performance.


    Presentation is the rendering of
    the content material and construction in a type that may be sensed by the person.


    Construction consists of each
    hierarchical construction of the content material and non-hierarchical
    relationships comparable to cross-references, or the correspondence between
    header and knowledge cells in a desk.


On this part, these tips require extra examples. Right here is
the place my readers can do essentially the most good with the least effort: All we
want, in most of those sections, are a number of folks’s
contributions of 1 or two examples every of real-world websites. The
websites you recommend may totally meet, partially meet, or fully fail
the proposed guideline.

You may also recount your individual lived experiences as an internet person.

The vital factor right here is to get WAI out of its behavior of
half-arsed hypothesizing. We would like their tips utilized in opposition to
current websites of all descriptions. WAI just isn’t eager about discovering
these websites by itself, so now we have at hand the information to them on a

  1. But
    extra textual content equivalents. WAI simply can’t get sufficient of these.
    However we want a wider vary of precise examples of textual content equivalents in
    actual use right now, whether or not well-done or not.

    1. Non-text content material that can be expressed in
      phrases has a textual content equal explicitly related to it.

    2. Non-text content material that can’t be expressed
      in phrases has a descriptive label offered as its textual content equal.

      • The textual content equal ought to fulfill the
        identical operate because the creator meant for the non-text content material (i.e.,
        it presents all the meant data and/or achieves the identical
        operate of the non-text content material).

  2. WAI dabbles dangerously within the situation of writing, a subject about which
    it has a demonstrable lack of awareness. Its concern
    with “concrete ideas” and related classifications of
    the written phrase is supposed to help folks with studying
    disabilities, however little good will come of it until we all know precisely
    what they’re speaking about. Do you?

    • Instance 1: An outline of a
      course of.

      A web page describes the best way to study to play soccer. Every
      step in studying the basics of the sport is illustrated with a
      {photograph} of a participant doing what’s described within the textual content.

    • Instance 2: A concrete

      The first idea on a web page is concrete. It’s
      discussing Mt. Pinatubo. It consists of each an outline of the 1991
      eruption in addition to pictures of the eruption and the aftermath. It
      hyperlinks to a different web site that incorporates video and one other web site that
      incorporates a 3D simulation of what occurred beneath the crust and
      inside the volcano throughout the eruption.

    • Instance 3: Youngster’s report of college journey.

      A baby went along with her faculty on a visit to a
      bicycle manufacturing plant. She wrote a report for her household and
      pals to put up to the net. Within the report, she consists of the corporate
      brand in addition to an image of a bicycle on the meeting line. She
      hyperlinks to the corporate web site for extra data. She consists of
      pictures she took of the plant.

    • Instance 4: Inventory-trading

      A information web site is evaluating the efficiency of the
      economic system from third quarter of this 12 months with third quarter from the
      final three years. They evaluate costs of the most well-liked shares.
      They current the information in a bar graph with a hyperlink to the uncooked knowledge they
      used to create the bar graph.

    • Instance 5: Historical past of music.

      A grandfather’s pastime is listening to and
      taking part in music. He creates a web site that features examples of many
      various kinds of music and musical devices. When describing
      particular sorts of music, he hyperlinks to a brief sound clip.

  3. Advantages
    of accessible alternate options want a number of case research (which, oddly, WAI
    may crib from its personal web page).

    • People who’re blind, have low imaginative and prescient, have
      cognitive disabilities or have hassle studying textual content for any motive
      can have the textual content learn aloud to them.

    • People who’re deaf, are arduous of listening to or
      who’re having hassle understanding the audio data for any
      motive can learn the textual content presentation or have it translated and
      introduced as signal language by their assistive expertise.

    • People who’re blind or deaf-blind can have
      the data introduced in Braille.

  4. Examples
    of multimedia accessibility: I do know I’m not the one one
    who truly watches captioning and audio description. I do know that
    few concerned in WAI do. Actual-life experiences and examples are referred to as
    for right here.

    • Instance 1: A film clip with audio
      description and captions.

      A clip from a film is revealed on a web site. In
      the clip, a toddler is making an attempt to lure a pet to the kid’s
      bed room by laying a path of crumbs. The kid mumbles inaudibly to
      himself as he lays the path. When not watching the video, it isn’t
      apparent that he’s laying a path of crumbs since all you hear is the
      mumbling. The audio description that’s interspersed with the
      baby’s mumbling says “Charlie lays a crumb on every stair
      resulting in his room.” The caption that seems as he mumbles is
      [inaudible mumbling].

    • Instance 2: A video clip of a information

      A video clip accompanies a information story concerning the
      latest flooding in a significant metropolis. The reporter describes what’s seen,
      for everybody. No audio description is critical. The captions show
      what the reporter is saying.

    • Instance 3: A silent

      An animation reveals a pantomime climbing a ladder.
      There isn’t a audio observe for this animation. No captions or audio
      description are required. As an alternative, a textual content equal is

  5. Absolutely we are able to give you higher real-world examples of a second
    language embedded in a paragraph. I additionally cleaned up WAI’s copy
    errors beneath.

    Facilitating unambiguous decoding of characters and phrases
    in content material can also be useful for people who’re studying to learn
    or studying a second language….

    Within the following sentence, “And with
    a sure je ne sais quoi, she entered each
    the room, and his life, endlessly,” the French phrase je ne sais quoi is marked as French. Relying on
    the markup language, English might both be marked because the language for
    your complete doc besides the place specified, or marked on the
    paragraph stage.

  6. The WAI is unaware that right desk markup makes desk construction
    crystal-clear. Additionally, precisely what “semantic markup” may
    make, for instance, homonyms, homographs, and figures of speech

    Present a abstract for relationships that might not be apparent from
    analyzing the construction of a desk however that could be obvious in a
    visible rendering of the desk.

    contracted types of phrases are used such that they’re ambiguous,
    present semantic markup to make phrases distinctive and interpretable.

  7. Right here
    is the place standardistas shine. We’re obsessed with the
    correct use of lists, headings, and different XHTML components. Time to offer
    WAI a style of our wonderful compliant medication. We might have an issue
    discovering examples of “chapters” and
    “sections,” as a result of, though they’re outlined as
    “relationships” of the hyperlink
    aspect, there are not any HTML components for chapters or sections.

    (This passage of the WCAG is especially pathetic, resorting to
    citing the construction of a bicycle to elucidate internet construction.)

    1. The content material has been reviewed, taking into trương mục the
      following methods for facilitating orientation and motion,
      making use of them as acceptable.

      1. Breaking apart textual content into logical

      2. Offering hierarchical sections and
        titles, significantly for longer paperwork

      3. Revealing vital non-hierarchical
        relationships, comparable to cross-references, or the correspondence
        between header and knowledge cells in a desk, in order that they’re
        represented unambiguously within the markup or knowledge mannequin

      4. Dividing very massive works into sections
        and or chapters with logical labels

      5. Others?

  8. What number of “increasing outlines” and “dynamic fisheye
    views” have you run by the W3C validator recently?

    web site navigation

    A web site
    navigation mechanism
    is a mechanism for simply orienting and
    shifting about inside the web site. Web site navigation mechanisms embody however
    usually are not restricted to:

    • A
      dwelling web page with hyperlinks on it and subsequent pages that hyperlink to the
      different pages on the web site

    • Web site map(s)

    • Search engine(s)

    • Increasing define(s)

    • Dynamic fisheye views displaying all linked pages or subjects
      associated to any web page.

    • 3D
      digital representations of web site content material

  9. Higher examples of constant
    web site format, anybody?

Unclear on the idea#section10

These tips present such a deep misunderstanding of the subject they
fake to sort out that they need to be deleted or massively rewritten.
The place you’ll be able to assist: See in the event you can determine what they’re meant
to imply and rewrite them. Or recommend causes, ideally backed up
with references to real-world websites and improvement practices, why
they need to be deleted.

  1. Unicode
    encoding is fascinating, however it isn’t the one encoding obtainable,
    nor does its absence impair accessibility.

    Textual content within the content material is offered in Unicode or enough
    data is offered in order that it may be robotically mapped again
    to Unicode.

  2. This guideline issues captioning of internet multimedia. Its plain
    studying requires a transcript of all real-time audio broadcasts. That
    is, each single Web radio station would require transcription.

    In the meantime, you probably have any sort of webcam in any respect, it is advisable
    scrounge up another web site you’ll be able to hyperlink to that’s by some means the
    “equal” of the webcam’s picture.

    If the net content material is real-time and audio-only and never
    time-sensitive and never interactive a transcript or different non-audio
    equal is enough. […]

    If the net content material is real-time non-interactive video (e.g., a
    webcam of ambient circumstances), both present an equal… (e.g.,
    an ongoing replace of climate circumstances) or hyperlink to an equal…
    (e.g., a hyperlink to a climate web site).

  3. The Net Accessibility Initiative misunderstands using cascading
    stylesheets. Right here
    it requires you to give you a unique look for dozens of
    HTML components. (Ought to the weather em,
    cite, and i actually look totally different?) It additionally
    requires you to code particular black-and-white and monaural stylesheets.

    The structural components current have a unique visible
    look or auditory attribute from one another and from physique
    textual content. […]

    The structural emphases are chosen to be distinct on totally different
    main visible show varieties (e.g. black and white, small show, mono
    audio playback). […]

    1. For visible displays, use font variations, kinds,
      dimension and white area to emphasise construction.

    2. Use colour and graphics to emphasise construction.

    3. For auditory displays, use totally different voice
      traits and/sounds for main headings, sections and different
      structural components.

    4. If content material is focused for a particular person group and the
      presentation of the structured content material just isn’t salient sufficient to satisfy
      the wants of your viewers, use further graphics, colours, sounds,
      and different elements of presentation to emphasise the construction.

  4. Foreground/background
    distinctions are, as they are saying, a private factor. WAI has offered
    no proof that authors can moderately anticipate how an individual with
    a visible impairment or studying incapacity might be confused by
    determine–floor mixtures. Additional, who runs in “256
    grayscale” anymore, not to mention black and white (i.e., one-bit
    color, like the unique Macintosh)?

    1. When textual content content material is introduced over a background picture or
      sample, the textual content is well readable when the web page is considered in 256

    2. Textual content content material just isn’t introduced over a background picture or
      sample or the textual content is well readable when the web page is
      considered in black and white (no grayscale).

    3. Audio content material doesn’t comprise background sounds
      or the background sounds are no less than 20 db decrease than the
      foreground audio content material.

    4. Textual content content material just isn’t introduced over a background picture or
      colour or the colours used for the textual content and background or
      background picture move the next take a look at:

  5. WAI has not acknowledged that many, and even most, web-based video games are
    going to be inaccessible to somebody. It doesn’t make a variety of
    sense to warn of an unpredictable response, thus making it

    The place inconsistent or unpredictable responses are important to the
    operate of the content material (e.g. thriller video games, journey video games, assessments,
    and so on.) the person is warned upfront of encountering them.

  6. Right here is the only largest minefield through which the Net Accessibility
    Initiative finds itself: Writing tips for learning-disabled folks,
    who, the WAI is unable to acknowledge, might by no means be considerably accommodated on-line.

    The present drafts are an enormous enchancment over earlier strategies,
    however WAI nonetheless clings to the notion that “content material” may be
    “reviewed” to exhibit that it’s as merely written as
    doable. However write too merely and it’s possible you’ll alienate your goal
    viewers. Right here accessibility turns from making websites accessible to
    rewriting your individual work — and making you illustrate it.

    Content material is written to be no extra advanced than is critical
    and/or complement[ed] with easier types of the content material.

    • the content material has been reviewed, taking into trương mục the
      following methods for evaluating the complexity of the content material,
      making use of them as acceptable.

      1. Familiarity of phrases and language

      2. Reasonableness of size and complexity of

      3. Coherence of paragraphs (and sensibility
        in size)

      4. Readability of headings and linked textual content when
        learn out of context

      5. Accuracy and uniqueness of web page titles

      6. Care in using all-capital letters
        the place regular sentence case may improve comprehension

      7. Inclusion of non-text content material to
        complement textual content for key pages or sections of the location the place they felt
        it was acceptable.

  7. Backward
    compatibility. There’s solely up to now again we are able to go in a
    world the place almost everybody makes use of a Model 5–or-later browser
    and authors are writing legitimate HTML and CSS, that are themselves
    speculated to be appropriate throughout browsers and units.

    As ever, there’s a lot dialogue of individuals with outdated
    expertise, which is an accessibility situation in a way apart from
    these inside WAI’s purview. Everyone else has to improve; why
    are folks with disabilities exempt? Ought to standards-compliant
    progress on the net be hindered as a result of somebody someplace is perhaps
    utilizing an previous display reader?

    Neither is there any understanding of the brand new and extra priceless idea
    of progressive enhancement — utilizing
    baseline HTML and CSS to be appropriate with any compliant gadget, however
    including options that more-sophisticated units can use.

    Advantages of figuring out and documenting baseline person agent

    • People can establish (both by web site
      documentation or robotically by metadata) whether or not or not they
      are doubtless to have the ability to use a web site. At the side of a search
      engine or a proxy server, this may very well be used to robotically filter
      out websites a person can’t entry or to robotically filter to the highest
      websites that may be most usable.

    • Requiring websites to doc their baseline will
      trigger them to guage assumptions about person brokers and can
      decrease the variety of websites which can be inadvertently inaccessible
      as a result of they’re unaware of backward compatibility points.

    Advantages of designing for backward

    • People who should use different searching
      applied sciences and units will be capable to entry the content material.

    • People who can’t afford or in any other case don’t
      have entry to newer applied sciences additionally profit from backward
      compatibility in that they won’t have to buy upgrades or
      tools as usually.

Subsequent to unimaginable#section11

The Net Accessibility Initiative publishes the next draft
tips despite the fact that they’re truly or almost unimaginable to
implement. Right here we want you to supply technical explanations, which
WAI members ought to have been in a position to give you themselves however have
not. Or you possibly can nominate examples from the true world and discover
how tough it might be to use the rules to them.

  1. “Collating” a “script” of audio descriptions
    and captions has been accomplished precisely as soon as in recorded reminiscence —
    for an indication challenge that’s not documented on-line. It’s
    unimaginable in observe because of the lack of interchange codecs for
    captioning, audio description, and associated fields. Nor are there that
    many examples of multimedia which can be captioned and
    described. It’s even uncommon, when you think about the total vary of
    TV applications and flicks, to seek out each captioning and outline in
    these well-established fields.

    Dwell captioning is awfully tough for on-line media (almost
    unimaginable utilizing standards-compliant code), whereas stay description
    has been tried a mere 5 instances within the broadcast sphere.
    In the meantime, after all captions require you to learn and watch
    on the identical time. This isn’t telepathy.

    1. a textual content doc that merges all audio descriptions and
      captions right into a collated script (that gives dialog, vital
      sounds and vital visible data in a single textual content doc) is

    2. captions and audio descriptions are offered for all stay
      broadcasts which give the identical data.

    3. the presentation doesn’t require the person to learn
      captions and the visible presentation concurrently so as to
      perceive the content material.

  2. It’s unimaginable to put in writing a stylesheet that detects
    the dimensions and color capabilities of a show and serves
    totally different instructions consequently. Nearly no person makes use of black-and-white
    shows; audio stylesheets are successfully unsupported, and stereo
    audio is the norm. The rule additionally apparently requires
    stylesheet-switchers on each web site. The idea of
    “differ[ing] the emphasis of the construction” is reasonably arduous
    to know, until it means making sure components invisible or
    but different components render in 96-point kind.

    1. The structural emphases are chosen to be distinct on
      totally different main visible show varieties (e.g. black and white, small
      show, mono audio playback).

    2. Content material is constructed such that customers can management the
      presentation of the structural components.

    3. Alternate presentation codecs can be found to differ the
      emphasis of the construction.

  3. This guideline,
    meant to assist dyslexics and others with associated studying
    disabilities, presupposes a Home windows-style combo field (drop-down listing
    plus type-in discipline). It might additionally require you to spell-check each
    enter ever made in your web site. That might appear to be the
    customer’s accountability, and it’s already

    1. The place doable, the person is allowed to pick out from a listing
      of choices in addition to to generate enter textual content straight.

    2. Errors are recognized particularly and strategies for
      correction are offered the place doable.

    3. Checks for misspelled phrases are utilized and proper
      spellings are steered when textual content entry is required.

Not our downside#section12

The Net Accessibility Initiative’s Net Content material
Accessibility Tips are meant “to make internet content material
accessible to folks with disabilities.” But these proposed
tips for WCAG 2.0 lengthen effectively past internet content material into unrelated
technical fields and, certainly, the thoughts of the creator.

Right here your contribution may be an skilled opinion on how the proposed
guideline would apply to your web site. Would you fail, move, or fall
someplace in between? Wouldn’t it even be doable so that you can assess
whether or not or not you comply? How would a Net Content material
Accessibility Guideline comparable to this have an effect on your internet improvement?

  1. Would you like the Net Accessibility Initiative dictating to you ways
    “advanced” or “unfamiliar” your content material may
    be, and even whether or not it is perhaps advanced in any respect? If utilizing knowledge tables,
    received’t you already be utilizing right desk markup?

    Content material is taken into account advanced if the
    relationships between items of data usually are not simple to determine
    out. If the presentation of the data is meant to spotlight
    tendencies or relationships between ideas, these must be explicitly
    acknowledged within the abstract.

    Examples of advanced data:

    • Knowledge tables,

    • Ideas which can be esoteric or

    • Content material that includes a number of

    unfamiliar content material

    Content material is perhaps unfamiliar if
    you’re utilizing phrases particular to a specific group.

  2. Abbreviations
    and acronyms are an issue which will by no means be satisfactorily
    resolved, no less than not till display readers — the primary sticking
    level right here — are upgraded to deal with them higher. In the meantime, the
    dialogue of diacritic marks is an try to drive authors to put in writing
    Arabic and Hebrew with the vowel markings which can be usually deleted
    in adult-level writing — once more all as a result of display readers
    can’t deal with the writing system as grownups use it.

    1. Abbreviations and acronyms are clearly recognized every
      time they happen.

    2. Symbols comparable to diacritic marks which can be present in normal
      utilization of the pure language of the content material, and which can be mandatory
      for unambiguous identification of phrases, are current or one other
      normal mechanism for disambiguation is offered.

  • You probably have something to contribute to the WCAG 2.0
    improvement course of, you’ll be able to put up a message to the WAI-GL mailing
    listing (wai-gl at
  • You’re additionally requested to put up to
    one other listing, public-comments-wcag20 at
  • Each lists have archives on the net (WAI-GL, ).
  • There’s additionally a Bugzilla implementation for
    WCAG, although you’re not allowed to
    “talk about” points there.
  • WCAG holds a number of “f2f” conferences every year; the following is in Tokyo.
  • I actually encourage you to publish feedback by yourself
    weblogs, with hyperlinks despatched alongside to the mailing lists. That can get
    the message out to extra readers, and likewise put a bit extra public
    strain on the Net Accessibility Initiative to create higher

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